Radio-Imaging and Health Science

Radio-Imaging and Health Science

Rome wasn’t built in a day! On this page I help you guys to gain knowledge of medical diagnostic f

Difference between Empyema & Lung Absecess 23/07/2020

Empyema Lung Absecess [ 37 more words ]
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Difference between Empyema & Lung Absecess EmpyemaLung AbsecessLenticular shapeLung AbscessUniform enhancing wallNon-uniform thick wallCompression of adjacent lungNo compression of surrounding lungObtuse angle with chest wallAcute angle wit…

Empyema 22/07/2020

Empyema-→ It is suppurative exudates which is parapneumonic.→ Rare cause : Trans-diaphragmatic extension of liver abscess.→ Loculation by pleural adhesion is very common. In case of chronic empyema: Thickening of visceral pleura and parietal pleura Calcification occurs, preventing re expansion of lungs Observation Radiographic feature: Mostly present as pleural effusion. Loculation is more common and have lenticular shape. [ 26 more words ]
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Empyema Empyema-→ It is suppurative exudates which is parapneumonic.→ Rare cause : Trans-diaphragmatic extension of liver abscess.→ Loculation by pleural adhesion is very common.In case of chronic empyema:…

B. Pneumothorax 20/07/2020

Pneumothorax→Presence of air in pleural cavity Chest radiograph→ Typical signs Air collects at the apex in case of erect patient . The lung retracts towards hilum, sharp white line of visceral pleura will be visible which is separated by the chest wall by radiolucent space that is devoid of lung marking. Small pneumothorax is better seen in expiratory film, as full expiration lung volume is smallest and volume of pleural air remains constant. Diagnosis is confirmed by lateral decubitus view in case patient cannot stand. CT Scan:→ Most sensitive method for detecting pneumothorax, determine size accurately
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B. Pneumothorax Pneumothorax→Presence of air in pleural cavityChest radiograph→ Typical signsAir collects at the apex in case of erect patient .The lung retracts towards hilum, sharp white line of visceral pleura …

4. Phantom Tumour. 19/07/2020

Radiograph Phantom Tumour- Fissural interlobar effusion is seen in heart failure. Observation- On lateral view Sharply margined. Bi-convex appearance, tail passing along fissure. Note- As heart failure is treated, the effusion disappears.
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4. Phantom Tumour. RadiographPhantom Tumour-Fissural interlobar effusion is seen in heart failure.Observation- On lateral viewSharply margined.Bi-convex appearance, tail passing along fissure.Note- As heart failure i…

2. Massive effusion & 3. Loculated pleural effusion 18/07/2020

Radiograph Massive effusion- It is collection of fluid between lungs and visceral pleura. 99Extends in vertical direction. Loculated pleural effusion- Fluid loculates in between- Visceral pleural layers in fissures OR Between visceral pleura and parietal pleura Between Lungs and parietal pleura USG and CT scan are very useful in differentiating loculated pleural effusion from pleural thickening.
https://healthsciencebyakshay.wordpress.com/2020/07/18/2-massive-effusion-3-loculated-pleural-effusion/

2. Massive effusion & 3. Loculated pleural effusion RadiographMassive effusion-It is collection of fluid between lungs and visceral pleura.99Extends in vertical direction. Loculated pleural effusion-Fluid loculates in between-Visceral pleural layers…

Pleural Effusion 16/07/2020

Pleural Effusion:It is collection of fluid in the pleural space Causes- Transudate Exudates Blood Chyle Types- Transudative: → Usually called Hydrothorax→ They are often bilateral Causes- Cardiac failure Renal failure Others Hypoproteinaemia (Nephrotic syndrome, Cirrhosis, and Anemia) Constrictive pericarditis Myxedema Exudative:→ Usually unilateral Causes- Bacterial pneumonia Pulmonary, TB Bronchial Carcinoma Metastatic malignancy Pulmonary Infraction Hemothorax:→Bloom in pleural space Causes- Trauma Pulmonary infraction Carcinoma of lungs Chylothorax-→It is developing secondary to the damage or obstruction of thoracic lymphatic vessels Causes- Trauma Carcinoma of lungs Lymphoma Filariasis Radiologic Signs → Signs of pleural effusion depends on the posture of the patient, Distribution of fluid, & presence of pleural adhesion.
https://healthsciencebyakshay.wordpress.com/2020/07/16/pleural-effusion/

Pleural Effusion Pleural Effusion:It is collection of fluid in the pleural spaceCauses-TransudateExudatesBloodChyleTypes-Transudative:→ Usually called Hydrothorax→ They are often bilateralCauses-Cardiac failureRena…

Pleura 15/07/2020

The normal Pleura→ It is serous membrane→ Covers surfaces of lungs and inner surface of chest Layers- Visceral pleura- Covers lungs Parietal pleura- Lines the inner surfaces of chest wall. Significance- Two layers encloses a potential space containing 5-10 ml fluid. These two layers are continuity at hilum. Radiological Observation- These layers are not visible radiologically. Horizontal fissure is often seen on PA-view. Oblique fissure is also seen in lateral views.
https://healthsciencebyakshay.wordpress.com/2020/07/15/pleura/

Pleura The normal Pleura→ It is serous membrane→ Covers surfaces of lungs and inner surface of chest Layers-Visceral pleura- Covers lungsParietal pleura- Lines the inner surfaces of chest wall.Significanc…

Common lesions in Mediastinum 14/07/2020

Anterior Mediastinum # Four T’s Thymic mass Thyroid mass Terrible lymphoma Teratodermoid tumours Middle Mediastinum Aneuryms of aortic arch. Lymph node enlargement Dilation of Superior venacava Posterior Mediastinum Aneurysms of descending aorta Neurogenic Tumour Pharyngoesophageal pouch Hiatus hernia
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Common lesions in Mediastinum Anterior Mediastinum # Four T’sThymic massThyroid massTerrible lymphomaTeratodermoid tumoursMiddle MediastinumAneuryms of aortic arch.Lymph node enlargementDilation of Superior venacavaPosterior Med…

Mediastinum 13/07/2020

Defined as- Intrathoracic region outside the pleural sacs in the centre of chest. Division-→ Superior Division→ Inferior division During plate location → extend from Manubrial sternal junction anteriorly & posteriorly to the spine. Intersects usually to the level inferior end plate of 4th dorsal vertebra (D4). Sub-division of inferior mediastinum Anterior Middle Posteriorby pericardium and heart. Radiological division- [ 71 more words ]
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Mediastinum Defined as- Intrathoracic region outside the pleural sacs in the centre of chest.Division-→ Superior Division→ Inferior divisionDuring plate location → extend from Manubrial sternal junction a…

Silhouette Sign 12/07/2020

Figure- (a) Line diagram showing the regions Shilhouetted by adjacent lobes, (b)Left lower lobe consolidationnot Shilhouetting the left heart border & (c) Left lingular consolidation Shilhouetting the left heart border. Principle- When two structure of same radiologic density are in same plane, then interface between them is obligated. Thus in case of intrathoracic lesions touching borders of diaphragm aorta =, or heart will obliterate that border on chest. [ 102 more words ]
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Silhouette Sign Figure- (a) Line diagram showing the regions Shilhouetted by adjacent lobes, (b)Left lower lobe consolidationnot Shilhouetting the left heart border & (c) Left lingular consolidation Shilhouett…

4. Rickets 12/07/2020

4. Rickets
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4. Rickets Figure- Expanded anterior ends of ribs,Pigeon shaped chest.A-P Diameter is more than transverse.Lesions most obvious in the region of active bone growth such as Costochondral Junction which is at…

3. Inferior Rib Notching: 11/07/2020

Figure- Inferior Rib NotchingIntercostal groove contains Intercostal veins Artery Nerve Protected by lower border of ribs. IRN develops of hypertrophy or with neurogenic tumor. Causes: Coarctation of aorta. Subclavian artery obstruction. Blalock- Taussing Shrut Chronic Superior or Inferior Vena Cava obstruction. Neuro fibromatosis= Superior Rib-notching is seen. With coarctation of aorta first and second intercostal arteries and ribs are not affected.
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3. Inferior Rib Notching: Figure- Inferior Rib NotchingIntercostal groove containsIntercostal veinsArteryNerveProtected by lower border of ribs.IRN develops of hypertrophy or with neurogenic tumor.Causes:Coarctation of aort…

1. Congenital Anomalies: Cervical Ribs & 2. Multiple Myeloma 10/07/2020

Figure- Left Sided Cervical RibObserved in 1-2% of the general population. Observation: Additional rib arising form C7 vertebra Commonly bilateral and mostly asymmetric. C7 is identified by → Transverse process → i.e., oriented downwards → appears inverted V shaped 2. Multiple Myeloma-→Multiple lytic lesions are seen.With sharp margins and typically described as Punched outRarely sclerotic margins are seen. Diffuse decrease in bone density.
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1. Congenital Anomalies: Cervical Ribs & 2. Multiple Myeloma Figure- Left Sided Cervical RibObserved in 1-2% of the general population.Observation:Additional rib arising form C7 vertebraCommonly bilateral and mostly asymmetric. C7 is identified by → Tra…

Structures to be focused while reading an X-ray of chest 09/07/2020

Following points should be noticed: Soft tissues Ribcage Lungs field Upper zone:Lungs field limited by imaginary lines drawn along anterior end of Second rib. Mid zone:Second rib to fourth rib. Lower zoneBelow anterior end of fourth rib. Cardio-phrenic & Costo-phrenic (CP) angles Heart and mediastinal shadow Hilar shadows Trachea Domes Sub-diaphragmatic area
https://healthsciencebyakshay.wordpress.com/2020/07/09/structures-to-be-focused-while-reading-an-x-ray-of-chest/

Structures to be focused while reading an X-ray of chest Following points should be noticed: Soft tissuesRibcageLungs fieldUpper zone:Lungs field limited by imaginary lines drawn along anterior end of Second rib.Mid zone:Second rib to fourth rib.Lower zo…

Use of Ultrasound and Computed Tomography 08/07/2020

Ultrasound Detecting: Small pleural effusion. Solid / Cystic nature of superficial lesions CT Scan Investigation of: Staging of Bronchogenic Carcinoma. Abnormal opacity radiograph. Widening mediastinum Abnormal hilum Pleural abnormality Chest wall lesion Interstitial lung disease
https://healthsciencebyakshay.wordpress.com/2020/07/08/use-of-ultrasound-and-computed-tomography-in-respiratory-system/

Use of Ultrasound and Computed Tomography UltrasoundDetecting:Small pleural effusion.Solid / Cystic nature of superficial lesionsCT ScanInvestigation of:Staging of Bronchogenic Carcinoma.Abnormal opacity radiograph.Widening mediastinumAbno…

5. Expiratory film, Plan Radio Graph 07/07/2020

Expiratory filmSpecifically done for diagnosis of: Unilateral obstructive emphysema Air cannot be readily expelled. Lungs on obstructed side remains expanded which is called Air trapping.Note: In children with inhalation of foreign body. Pneumothorax always appears larger on expiration than inspiration; occasionally a small pneumothorax is only visible at time of expiration. Minimal Pleural effusion and to confirm air fluid levels. Small Pneumothorax:Affected side must be in non-dependent position.
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5. Expiratory film, Plan Radio Graph Expiratory filmSpecifically done for diagnosis of:Unilateral obstructive emphysemaAir cannot be readily expelled.Lungs on obstructed side remains expanded which is called Air trapping.Note: In chil…

4. Decubitus view of Respiratory System 06/07/2020

Figure- Pleural Effusion Demonstration by Decubitus view Decubitus view-Patient is lying on one side and X-ray beam is perpendicular to the film. Right lateral decubitus view: When patient is lying on one side, X- ray film is placed behind back= RLD view Left lateral decubitus view:- Similarly when patient is lying on left side. Suitable investigation for: Demonstrating simple pleura effusion. Confirm air-fluid levels in lungs For demonstration of small pneumothorax,Note: Affected side should be in non-dependent position.
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4. Decubitus view of Respiratory System Figure- Pleural Effusion Demonstration by Decubitus viewDecubitus view-Patient is lying on one side and X-ray beam is perpendicular to the film.Right lateral decubitus view:When patient is lying on…

3. Lateral View of Respiratory System 04/07/2020

Lateral View → Left lateral view-View in which left side of chest is held against film.Similarly, Right lateral view-When right side of chest is held against film. Investigation of: Minimal pleural effusion. Segmental / Mediastinal localization of lesions of chest. Importance:Shows lesions located behind heart Or in base of lungs which is not seen by PA. Rules and process: [ 42 more words ]
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3. Lateral View of Respiratory System Lateral View→Left lateral view-View in which left side of chest is held against film.Similarly,Right lateral view-When right side of chest is held against film.Investigation of:Minimal pleural effu…

2. Antero-Posterior view of Respiratory system 03/07/2020

Antero-Posterior view-Made with patient supine(lying)-AP = Anterior → Posterior-Usually done with portable X- ray. Procedure X- ray beam passes throughAnterior → Posterior Distance= 100cm. Comparison with PA view Compared to PA there is greater magnification and less sharpness. Q. Why PA view is always preferred to AP viewA. Because: No cardiac magnification, hence, Cardio- Thoracic ratio is truly visible. [ 131 more words ]
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2. Antero-Posterior view of Respiratory system Antero-Posterior view-Made with patient supine(lying)-AP = Anterior → Posterior-Usually done with portable X- ray.ProcedureX- ray beam passes throughAnterior →  PosteriorDistance= 100cm. Compa…

1. Postero-Anterior (PA)view of Respiratory System 02/07/2020

Figure:- PA view of Respiratory System Postero-Anterior (PA)view-Its standard frontal view= PA view PA = direction of X- Ray beam, i.e., Posterior → Anterior of body Plan Radiograph- Still a primary diagnostic investigation of chest examination.- Radiographic investigation is considered as the best for lung diseases. Different Views for evaluation of Chest are: Postero-Anterior (PA)view-Its standard frontal view= … [ 43 more words ]
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1. Postero-Anterior (PA)view of Respiratory System Figure:- PA view of Respiratory SystemPostero-Anterior (PA)view-Its standard frontal view= PA viewPA = direction of X- Ray beam, i.e., Posterior → Anterior of body Plan Radiograph- Still a prim…