Understand and Monitor Your Health

Understand and Monitor Your Health

Understand and monitor your health is committed to making you understand your health and take adequate monitoring advice to keep your health in check.

Most chronic ailment are diagnosed by chance, and adequately managed by prompt monitoring.

25/09/2021

Good day friends, as we mark world pharmacist day today, it's is good we list some of the interventions of pharmacists in medical/pharmaceutical care.

World Pharmacist Day September 25th

Theme of this year is 'Pharmacy: Always Trusted For Your Health'

A pharmacy is usually the first port of call for virtual everyone. This is because of the fact that it is easily accessible.
You do not need the processes you pass through to get to see a doctor in the hospital before you see a doctor in a hospital.
The importance of pharmacist cannot be over emphasized.

The pharmacist helps in providing pharmaceutical care to its clients. He takes responsibility in providing for your medication needs with the goal of achieving an improved quality of life.
He helps you in avoiding potential drug interactions.

He is a medication expert.

Kindly consult your pharmacist today for all your medication enquiries.

Happy world pharmacist day to all pharmacists all over the world who are working round the clock to better the health of the people entrusted under their care.

As men of honour, we join hands

22/08/2021

๐–๐‡๐Ž ๐ˆ๐’ ๐€๐“ ๐‘๐ˆ๐’๐Š ๐Ž๐… ๐Œ๐€๐‹๐€๐‘๐ˆ๐€? (๐—–๐—ข๐—ก๐—ง๐—œ๐—ก๐—จ๐—”๐—ง๐—œ๐—ข๐—ก ๐—ข๐—™ ๐—ฃ๐—ฅ๐—˜๐—ฉ๐—œ๐—ข๐—จ๐—ฆ ๐—ฃ๐—ข๐—ฆ๐—ง)

In 2019,

โ€ข ๐—ก๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—น๐˜† ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ณ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜„๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—น๐—ฑ'๐˜€ ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—ฝ๐˜‚๐—น๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐˜„๐—ฎ๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐˜ ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ธ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฎ

โ€ข ๐— ๐—ผ๐˜€๐˜ ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฎ ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ต๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฐ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐˜€๐˜‚๐—ฏ-๐—ฆ๐—ฎ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ป ๐—”๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ

However, the World Health Organisation (WHO) regions of South-East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, and the Americas are also at risk.

๐’๐จ๐ฆ๐ž ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฉ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐ ๐ซ๐จ๐ฎ๐ฉ๐ฌ ๐š๐ซ๐ž ๐š๐ญ ๐œ๐จ๐ง๐ฌ๐ข๐๐ž๐ซ๐š๐›๐ฅ๐ฒ ๐ก๐ข๐ ๐ก๐ž๐ซ ๐ซ๐ข๐ฌ๐ค ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐œ๐จ๐ง๐ญ๐ซ๐š๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ฆ๐š๐ฅ๐š๐ซ๐ข๐š, ๐š๐ง๐ ๐๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐จ๐ฉ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ฌ๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ซ๐ž ๐๐ข๐ฌ๐ž๐š๐ฌ๐ž, ๐ญ๐ก๐š๐ง ๐จ๐ญ๐ก๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ.

โ€ข ๐“๐ก๐ž๐ฌ๐ž ๐ข๐ง๐œ๐ฅ๐ฎ๐๐ž ๐ข๐ง๐Ÿ๐š๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ

โ€ข ๐—–๐ก๐ข๐ฅ๐๐ซ๐ž๐ง ๐ฎ๐ง๐๐ž๐ซ ๐Ÿ“ ๐ฒ๐ž๐š๐ซ๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐š๐ ๐ž

โ€ข ๐ฉ๐ซ๐ž๐ ๐ง๐š๐ง๐ญ ๐ฐ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง

โ€ข ๐—ฃ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐‡๐ˆ๐•/๐€๐ˆ๐ƒ๐’,

โ€ข ๐—ก๐จ๐ง-๐ข๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ž ๐ฆ๐ข๐ ๐ซ๐š๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ

โ€ข ๐— ๐จ๐›๐ข๐ฅ๐ž ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฉ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ญ๐ซ๐š๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ.

National malaria control programmes need to take special measures to protect these population groups from malaria infection, taking into consideration their specific circumstances

๐‡๐Ž๐– ๐–๐„ ๐†๐„๐“ ๐Œ๐€๐‹๐€๐‘๐ˆ๐€

In most cases, malaria is transmitted through the bites of female ๐˜ผ๐™ฃ๐™ค๐™ฅ๐™๐™š๐™ก๐™š๐™จ ๐™ข๐™ค๐™จ๐™ฆ๐™ช๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ค๐™š๐™จ.

There are more than 400 ๐’…๐’Š๐’‡๐’‡๐’†๐’“๐’†๐’๐’• ๐’”๐’‘๐’†๐’„๐’Š๐’†๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘จ๐’๐’๐’‘๐’‰๐’†๐’๐’†๐’” ๐’Ž๐’๐’”๐’’๐’–๐’Š๐’•๐’; around 30 are malaria vectors of major importance.

๐ด ๐‘ฃ๐‘’๐‘๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘–๐‘  ๐‘Ž ๐‘™๐‘–๐‘ฃ๐‘–๐‘›๐‘” ๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘”๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘–๐‘ ๐‘š ๐‘กโ„Ž๐‘Ž๐‘ก ๐‘ก๐‘Ÿ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘ ๐‘š๐‘–๐‘ก๐‘  ๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐‘–๐‘›๐‘“๐‘’๐‘๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘ข๐‘  ๐‘Ž๐‘”๐‘’๐‘›๐‘ก ๐‘“๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘š ๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐‘–๐‘›๐‘“๐‘’๐‘๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘‘ ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘–๐‘š๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐‘Ž โ„Ž๐‘ข๐‘š๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘œ๐‘กโ„Ž๐‘’๐‘Ÿ ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘–๐‘š๐‘Ž๐‘™.

All of the important vector species bite between dusk and dawn.
The intensity of transmission depends on factors related to the parasite, the vector, the human host, and the environment.

๐‘จ๐’๐’๐’‘๐’‰๐’†๐’๐’†๐’” ๐™ข๐™ค๐™จ๐™ฆ๐™ช๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ค๐™š๐™จ lay their eggs in water, which hatch into larvae, eventually emerging as adult mosquitoes.

The female mosquitoes seek a blood meal to nurture their eggs. They achieve this by biting the human host.

Each species of Anopheles mosquito has its own preferred aquatic habitat; for example, some prefer small, shallow collections of fresh water, which are abundant during the rainy season in tropical countries.

Transmission is more intense in places where the mosquito lifespan is longer (so that the parasite has time to complete its development inside the mosquito) and where it prefers to bite humans rather than other animals.

๐‘ป๐’‰๐’† ๐’๐’๐’๐’ˆ ๐’๐’Š๐’‡๐’†๐’”๐’‘๐’‚๐’ ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’”๐’•๐’“๐’๐’๐’ˆ ๐’‰๐’–๐’Ž๐’‚๐’-๐’ƒ๐’Š๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’‰๐’‚๐’ƒ๐’Š๐’• ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘จ๐’‡๐’“๐’Š๐’„๐’‚๐’ ๐’—๐’†๐’„๐’•๐’๐’“ ๐’”๐’‘๐’†๐’„๐’Š๐’†๐’” is the main reason why approximately 90% of the world's malaria cases are in Africa.

Transmission also depends on climatic conditions that may affect the number and survival of mosquitoes, such as rainfall patterns, temperature and humidity. In many places, transmission is seasonal, with the peak during and just after the rainy season.

Malaria epidemics can occur when climate and other conditions suddenly favour transmission in areas where people have little or no immunity to malaria.

They can also occur when people with low immunity move into areas with intense malaria transmission, for instance to find work, or as refugees.

Human immunity is another important factor, especially among adults in areas of moderate or intense transmission conditions.

Partial immunity is developed over years of exposure, and while it never provides complete protection, it does reduce the risk that malaria infection will cause severe disease.

For this reason, most malaria deaths in Africa occur in young children, whereas in areas with less transmission and low immunity, all age groups are at risk.

๐‡๐Ž๐– ๐‚๐€๐ ๐–๐„ ๐๐‘๐„๐•๐„๐๐“ ๐Œ๐€๐‹๐€๐‘๐ˆ๐€?

Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce malaria transmission.

If coverage of vector control interventions within a specific area is high enough, then a measure of protection will be conferred across the community.

WHO recommends protection for all people at risk of malaria with effective malaria vector control. Two forms of vector control namely;

โ€ข Use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets

โ€ข Indoor residual spraying of insecticides โ€“ are effective in a wide range of circumstances.

๐ˆ๐ง๐ฌ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐œ๐ข๐๐ž-๐ญ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ญ๐ž๐ ๐ฆ๐จ๐ฌ๐ช๐ฎ๐ข๐ญ๐จ ๐ง๐ž๐ญ๐ฌ

Sleeping under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) can reduce contact between mosquitoes and humans by providing both a physical barrier and an insecticidal effect.

Population-wide protection can result from the killing of mosquitoes on a large scale where there is high access and usage of such nets within a community.

๐—จ๐˜€๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜๐—ถ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—ฑ๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐—ด๐˜€

Antimalarial medicines can also be used to prevent malaria.

For travellers, malaria can be prevented using drugs with malaria prevention activity.
It suppresses the blood stage of malaria infections, thereby preventing malaria disease.

For pregnant women living in moderate-to-high transmission areas, the WHO recommends at least 3 doses of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine at each scheduled antenatal visit after the first trimester (three months) of pregnancy.

Similarly, for infants living in high-transmission areas of Africa, 3 doses of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended, delivered alongside routine vaccinations.

๐—›๐—ข๐—ช ๐—ง๐—ข ๐—ž๐—ก๐—ข๐—ช ๐—œ๐—™ ๐—ฌ๐—ข๐—จ ๐—›๐—”๐—ฉ๐—˜ ๐— ๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—”๐—ฅ๐—œ๐—”

Cold and flu have overlapping symptoms of malaria. The confirmatory diagnosis of malaria can only be done through a laboratory test.

WHO recommends that all cases of suspected malaria be confirmed using parasite-based diagnostic testing (either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) before administering treatment.

Results of parasitological confirmation can be available in 30 minutes or less. Treatment, solely on the basis of symptoms should only be considered when a parasitological diagnosis is not possible.

๐—ฃ๐—ฆ:

The post above is for informational purposes only. It is not for diagnostic or treatment purposes.
If you suspect you have malaria, kindly book an appointment with your doctor or visit the pharmacist to get a good medical care.

๐—”๐˜ƒ๐—ผ๐—ถ๐—ฑ ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—น๐—ณ ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป.

21/08/2021

PEOPLE AT RISK OF MALARIA IN THE WORLD

According to WHO,

21/08/2021

MALARIA KEY FACTS

Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. It is preventable and curable.

In 2019, there were an estimated 229 million cases of malaria worldwide.

The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 409 000 in 2019.

Children aged under 5 years are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria; in 2019, they accounted for 67% (274 000) of all malaria deaths worldwide.

The WHO African Region carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2019, the region was home to 94% of malaria cases and deaths

Total funding for malaria control and elimination reached an estimated US$ 3 billion in 2019. Contributions from governments of endemic countries amounted to US$ 900 million, representing 31% of total funding.

Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called "malaria vectors."

There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species โ€“ P. falciparum and P. vivax โ€“ pose the greatest threat.

In 2018, P. falciparum accounted for 99.7% of estimated malaria cases in the WHO African Region 50% of cases in the WHO South-East Asia Region, 71% of cases in the Eastern Mediterranean and 65% in the Western Pacific.

P. vivax is the predominant parasite in the WHO Region of the Americas, representing 75% of malaria cases.

To be continued in our next post

07/08/2021

HEPATITIS B VIRUS

Key facts

๏ถ Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease.
๏ถ The virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids during s*x with an infected partner, unsafe injections or exposures to sharp instruments.
๏ถ WHO estimates that 296 million people were living with chronic hepatitis B infection in 2019, with 1.5 million new infections each year
๏ถ In 2019, hepatitis B resulted in an estimated 820 000 deaths, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer).
๏ถ Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccines that are safe, available and effective.
๏ถ Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.
๏ถ A safe and effective vaccine that offers 98% to 100% protection against hepatitis B is available. Preventing hepatitis B infection averts the development of complications including chronic disease and liver cancer.
๏ถ The burden of hepatitis B infection is highest in the WHO Western Pacific Region and the WHO African Region, where 116 million and 81 million people, respectively, are chronically infected. Sixty million people are infected in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, 18 million in the WHO South-East Asia Region, 14 million in the WHO European Region and 5 million in the WHO Region of the Americas.

HOW IS IT SPREAD OR TRANSMITTED?

Hepatitis B is transmitted through direct contact with infected blood. This can happen through direct blood-to-blood contact, unprotected s*x, unsterile needles, and unsterile medical or dental equipment. Globally, hepatitis B is most commonly spread from an infected mother to her baby due to the blood exchange during childbirth. It can also be transmitted inadvertently by the sharing of personal items such as razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers, body jewelry, and other personal items that have small amounts of blood on them.

Hepatitis B is not transmitted casually by sneezing or coughing, shaking hands, hugging or sharing or preparing a meal. In fact, hepatitis B is not contracted during most of lifeโ€™s daily activities. You donโ€™t need to separate cups, utensils, or dishes. You can eat a meal with or prepared by someone with hep B. Hugging, or even kissing wonโ€™t cause infection unless there are bleeding gums or open sores during the exchange. As an infection that is spread through the blood, standard precautions such as covering all wounds tightly, practicing safe s*x (using a condom), and cleaning up all blood spills with gloves and a solution of one part bleach to nine parts water will protect against transmission. The best tool we have to prevent transmission is the hepatitis B vaccine!

SYMPTOMS OF HEPATITIS B

Most people do not experience any symptoms when newly infected. However, some people have acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. People with acute hepatitis can develop acute liver failure, which can lead to death. Among the long-term complications of HBV infections, a subset of persons develops advanced liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which cause high morbidity and mortality.

DIAGNOSIS

It is not possible on clinical grounds to differentiate hepatitis B from hepatitis caused by other viral agents, hence laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is essential. Several blood tests are available to diagnose and monitor people with hepatitis B. They can be used to distinguish acute and chronic infections. WHO recommends that all blood donations be tested for hepatitis B to ensure blood safety and avoid accidental transmission.

TREATMENT

There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B. Therefore, care is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids lost from vomiting and diarrhoea. Most important is the avoidance of unnecessary medications. Acetaminophen, paracetamol and medication against vomiting should be avoided.

Chronic hepatitis B infection can be treated with medicines, including oral antiviral agents. Treatment can slow the progression of cirrhosis, reduce incidence of liver cancer and improve long term survival. In 2021 WHO estimated that 12% to 25% of people with chronic hepatitis B infection will require treatment, depending on setting and eligibility criteria.

WHO recommends the use of oral treatments (tenofovir or entecavir) as the most potent drugs to suppress hepatitis B virus. Most people who start hepatitis B treatment must continue it for life.

In low-income settings, most people with liver cancer die within months of diagnosis. In high-income countries, patient present to hospital earlier in the course of the disease, and have access to surgery and chemotherapy which can prolong life for several months to a few years. Liver transplantation is sometimes used in people with cirrhosis or liver cancer in in high-income countries, with varying success.

PREVENTION

WHO recommends that all infants receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours, followed by 2 or 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine at least 4 weeks apart to complete the vaccination series. Protection lasts at least 20 years and is probably lifelong. WHO does not recommend booster vaccinations for persons who have completed the 3-dose vaccination schedule.

In addition to infant vaccination, WHO recommends the use of antiviral prophylaxis for the prevention of hepatitis B transmission from mother-to-child. Implementation of blood safety strategies and safer s*x practices, including minimizing the number of partners and using barrier protective measures (condoms), also protect against transmission.

WORLD HEPATITIS DAY

28th July every year is world hepatitis day. It is a day to raise awareness about the hepatitis b virus.

Do you know your status?
Have you been vaccinated?
If your answer to any of the above is no, kindly do the needful.
Get tested today!
Get vaccinated today!

05/08/2021

Chronic ailment is on the increase. Adequate monitoring is essential for early detection and proper management.

Photos from Understand and Monitor Your Health's post 14/04/2020

Stay safe!

Protect yourself as you protect others!

Keep social distance

Wash your hands with soap over running water
Use hand sanitizer with at least 62% of alcohol.
Together we shall overcome.
Let's be our brother's keeper as we follow the recommended WHO measures to curb the spread of this Covid 19 as listed in the attached photos.

Timeline photos 13/04/2020
07/04/2020

Covid-19 has been on for quite some time now. It has created a lot of panic. Many people are so afraid that they can lose consciousness with the mention of their positive test result for covid-19. The good news is that it is not as deadly as it has been promoted in the media. We should take solace in the fact that so many are also recovering from it. As you keep social distance and put into practice all the recommended precautions you reduce your chance of contracting it. This will surely pass too. We shall come out of this.
Stay safe!
Social distancing is a must!
Wash your hand frequently with soap over running water!
Use hand sanitizer if you do not have access to soap and running water!
Stay at home if you are sick!

Stay safe all.