Buda and Sons Medical Clinic

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Rh blood group

By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Bonface •

Rh blood group system, system for classifying blood groups according to the presence or absence of the Rh antigen, often called the Rh factor, on the cell membranes of the red blood cells (erythrocytes). The designation Rh is derived from the use of the blood of rhesus monkeys in the basic test for determining the presence of the Rh antigen in human blood. The Rh blood group system was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and A.S. Weiner. Since that time a number of distinct Rh antigens have been identified, but the first and most common one, called RhD, causes the most severe immune reaction and is the primary determinant of the Rh trait.
The Rh antigen poses a danger for the Rh-negative person, who lacks the antigen, if Rh-positive blood is given in transfusion. Adverse effects may not occur the first time Rh-incompatible blood is given, but the immune system responds to the foreign Rh antigen by producing anti-Rh antibodies. If Rh-positive blood is given again after the antibodies form, they will attack the foreign red blood cells, causing them to clump together, or agglutinate. The resulting hemolysis, or destruction of the red blood cells, causes serious illness and sometimes death.

A similar hazard exists during pregnancy for the Rh-positive offspring of Rh-incompatible parents, when the mother is Rh-negative and the father is Rh-positive. The first child of such parents is usually in no danger unless the mother has acquired anti-Rh antibodies by virtue of incompatible blood transfusion. During labour, however, a small amount of the fetus’s blood may enter the mother’s bloodstream. The mother will then produce anti-Rh antibodies, which will attack any Rh-incompatible fetus in subsequent pregnancies. This process produces erythroblastosis fetalis, or hemolyt

Buda and Sons Medical Clinic 20/05/2021

Buda and Sons Medical Clinic

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Improve on your health with us, you are free to ask about ur health status and the doctors will reply to your needs and also show you what to do and what medication to take

Buda and Sons Medical Clinic In our Clinic, we aspire to be the Private Healthcare Facility recognized for setting the standards for excellence and responsiveness in Western Equatorial. Call Center +211917889956

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2: Cancer

How does cancer start?

Cancer develops when the body's normal control mechanism stops working. Old cells do not die and instead grow out of control, forming new, abnormal cells. These extra cells may form a mass of tissue, called a tumor. Some cancers, such as leukemia, do not form tumors.


Heart attack symptoms in both men and women

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The leading cause of death in South Sudan?


1. Heart disease
Many of the top 10 causes of death are preventable through lifestyle changes and regular checkups.

Percentage of total deaths: 23.5%
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. This is the case in South Sudan and worldwide. More than half of all people who die due to heart disease are men.

Medical professionals use the term heart disease to describe several conditions. Many of these conditions relate to the buildup of plaque in the walls of the arteries.

As the plaque develops, the arteries narrow. This makes it difficult for blood to flow around the body and increases the risk of heart attack or stroke. It can also give rise to angina, arrythmias, and heart failure.

To reduce the risk of dying from heart disease, a person can protect their heart health by adopting a healthful diet and getting regular exercise.

Being able to recognize the symptoms of a heart attack can also help people get prompt medical treatment and potentially save their lives.

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Attention!!! 2021 New post about women with Covid-19

Pregnant women with COVID-19 are less likely than non-pregnant women with COVID-19 to have symptoms, but more likely to need intensive care if severely ill – according to new findings
New research findings published today by Buda and Sons MC, on the risks of COVID-19 for pregnant women and their babies. The paper suggests that pregnant women seen at the hospital with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 are less likely to experience a fever or muscle pain, but if they develop severe disease they are more likely to need intensive care than non-pregnant women with COVID-19.

This is first news of a ‘living systematic review’; ongoing, global, research which is collecting and synthesising data on the situation for pregnant women with COVID-19 in countries worldwide. It has been led by researchers at the University of Juba, the World Health Organization, and the Special Programme HRP alongside other collaborators.

Pre-existing medical conditions
Evidence currently suggests that people who are non-white, are older, who are overweight and/or have a pre-existing medical condition, are more vulnerable to severe disease due to COVID-19. According to the findings published today, pregnant women with COVID-19, who have pre-existing medical conditions, such as diabetes or chronic high blood pressure, or those who are older or overweight, are also more likely to suffer severe health complications due to COVID-19.

Wegembori Bonface, an author of the study comments, “The evidence shows us that having pre-existing health conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure, puts you at greater risk, whether or not you are pregnant.”
These findings underline the need for pregnant women and recently pregnant women to take all precautions to avoid COVID-19 disease, in particular if they have underlying conditions.

Risks for newborn babies and women
The research findings show that pregnant or recently pregnant women with COVID-19 were more likely to give birth prematurely. The findings also show that 1 in 4 of all babies born to women with COVID-19, were admitted to a neonatal unit but data on causes of preterm births or indications for admission to neonatal units among these babies is lacking. Stillbirth and newborn death rates however were low.

Implications for healthcare
It is important healthcare providers are aware that pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborn babies may be more likely to need specialist care, and that women and their babies have access to this care. This is particularly true for pregnant women with COVID-19 alongside other co-morbidities.

In addition it is crucial to stress that whether or not a woman has COVID-19, her right to a positive pregnancy and childbirth experience must be ensured.


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What is the role of indomethacin in the treatment of preterm labor? - Medscape

Indomethacin is an appropriate first-line tocolytic for the pregnant patient in early preterm labor (< 30 wk) or preterm labor associated with polyhydramnios. A more significant inflammatory response in the membranes and decidua is observed at gestational ages less than 30 weeks compared with 30-36 weeks.

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The best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus. Learn how COVID-19 spreads and practice these actions to help prevent the spread of this illness.

To help prevent the spread of COVID-19, everyone should:

Clean your hands often, either with soap and water for 20 seconds or a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.

Avoid close contact with people who are sick.

Put distance between yourself and other people (at least 6 feet).

Cover your mouth and nose with a cloth face cover when around others.

Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.

Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces daily.

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COVID-19 affects different people in different ways. Infected people have had a wide range of symptoms reported – from mild symptoms to severe illness.

Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. People with these symptoms may have COVID-19:

Fever or chills


Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing


Muscle or body aches


New loss of taste or smell

Sore throat

Congestion or runny nose

Nausea or vomiting


Look for emergency warning signs for COVID-19. If someone is showing any of these signs, seek emergency medical care immediately:

Trouble breathing

Persistent pain or pressure in the chest

New confusion

Inability to wake or stay awake

Bluish lips or face

Call your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning to you.

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Why is this medication prescribed?

Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced by the body and are needed for normal body functioning). It is also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the nerves do not function properly), lupus (a disease in which the body attacks many of its own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Hydrocortisone injection is also used to treat certain conditions that affect the blood, skin, eyes, nervous system, thyroid, kidneys, and lungs. Hydrocortisone injection is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. It works to treat people with low levels of corticosteroids by replacing steroids that are normally produced naturally by the body. It also works to treat other conditions by reducing swelling and redness and by changing the way the immune system works.

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As Buda and Sons

Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs interact differently in each person, we can not guarantee that this information includes all possible interactions. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always speak with your healthcare provider about possible interactions with all prescription drugs, vitamins, herbs and supplements, and over-the-counter drugs that you are taking.

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What is ciprofloxacin?

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone (flor-o-KWIN-o-lone) antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body. It is used to treat different types of bacterial infections, including skin infections, bone and joint infections, respiratory or sinus infections, urinary tract infections, and certain types of diarrhea. It is also used to treat gonorrhea.
Ciprofloxacin is also used to treat people who have been exposed to anthrax or certain types of
plague .

Ciprofloxacin should be used only for infections that cannot be treated with a safer antibiotic.
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics can cause serious or disabling side effects that may not be reversible, such as tendon rupture or nerve problems.

- Important Information

Ciprofloxacin can cause serious side effects, including tendon problems, nerve damage, serious mood or behavior changes, or low blood sugar .
Stop using this medicine and call your doctor at once if you have symptoms such as: headache, hunger, irritability, numbness, tingling, burning pain, confusion, agitation, paranoia, problems with memory or concentration, thoughts of suicide, or sudden pain or movement problems in any of your joints.
In rare cases, ciprofloxacin may cause damage to your aorta, which could lead to dangerous bleeding or death. Get emergency medical help if you have severe and constant pain in your chest, stomach, or back.
You may not be able to use ciprofloxacin if you have a muscle disorder. Tell your doctor if you have a history of myasthenia gravis.
Before taking this medicine
You should not use ciprofloxacin if you are allergic to it, or if:
you also take tizanidine ; or
you are allergic to other fluoroquinolones ( gemifloxacin , levofloxacin , moxifloxacin,
norfloxacin, ofloxacin , and others).
You also take theophylline
Ciprofloxacin may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. This can happen during treatment or up to several months after you stop taking this medicine. Tendon problems may be more likely in certain people (children and older adults, or people who use steroid medicine or have had an
organ transplant).
To make sure this medicine is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have ever had:
tendon problems, bone problems, arthritis, or other joint problems (especially in children);
blood circulation problems, aneurysm, narrowing or hardening of the arteries;
heart problems, high blood pressure;
a genetic disease such as Marfan syndrome or Ehler's-Danlos syndrome;
a muscle or nerve disorder, such as
myasthenia gravis ;
kidney disease;
seizures or epilepsy ;
a head injury or brain tumor;
long QT syndrome (in you or a family member); or
low levels of potassium in your blood ( hypokalemia ).
Do not give this medicine to a child without medical advice.
It is not known whether this medicine will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant.
You should not breast-feed while using this medicine.
How should I take ciprofloxacin?
Take ciprofloxacin exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets.
You may take ciprofloxacin with or without food, at the same time each day.
Shake the oral suspension (liquid) for 15 seconds before you measure a dose. Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device (not a kitchen spoon). Do not give ciprofloxacin oral suspension through a feeding tube.
Swallow the extended-release tablet whole and do not crush, chew, or break it.
Use ciprofloxacin for the full prescribed length of time, even if your symptoms quickly improve. Skipping doses can increase your risk of infection that is resistant to medication. This medicine will not treat a viral infection such as the flu or a
common cold .
Do not share ciprofloxacin with another person.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze. Throw away any unused liquid after 14 days.
See also:
Ciprofloxacin dosage information (in more detail)
What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

- What should I avoid while taking ciprofloxacin?

Do not take ciprofloxacin with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium- fortified juice. You may eat or drink these products with your meals, but do not use them alone when taking ciprofloxacin. They could make the medication less effective.
Using caffeine while taking ciprofloxacin can increase the effects of the caffeine.
Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea , which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, call your doctor before using anti-diarrhea medicine.
Ciprofloxacin could make you sunburn more easily. Avoid sunlight or tanning beds. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen (SPF 30 or higher) when you are outdoors. Tell your doctor if you have severe burning, redness, itching, rash, or swelling after being in the sun.
Avoid driving or hazardous activity until you know how this medicine will affect you. Your reactions could be impaired.
Ciprofloxacin side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to ciprofloxacin ( hives , difficult breathing, swelling in your face or throat)
or a severe skin reaction (fever, sore throat, burning in your eyes, skin pain, red or purple skin rash that spreads and causes blistering and peeling).
Ciprofloxacin can cause serious side effects, including tendon problems, side effects on your nerves (which may cause permanent nerve damage), serious mood or behavior changes (after just one dose), or low blood sugar (which can lead to coma).
Stop taking this medicine and call your doctor at once if you have:
low blood sugar - headache, hunger, sweating, irritability, dizziness, nausea , fast heart rate , or feeling anxious or shaky;
nerve symptoms in your hands, arms, legs, or feet - numbness, weakness, tingling, burning pain;
serious mood or behavior changes - nervousness, confusion, agitation, paranoia, hallucinations, memory problems, trouble concentrating, thoughts of suicide; or
signs of tendon rupture - sudden pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, stiffness, movement problems, or a snapping or popping sound in any of your joints (rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions).
In rare cases, ciprofloxacin may cause damage to your aorta, the main blood artery of the body. This could lead to dangerous bleeding or death. Get emergency medical help if you have severe and constant pain in your chest, stomach, or back.
Also, stop using this medicine and call your doctor at once if you have:
severe stomach pain, diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
fast or pounding heartbeats, fluttering in your chest, shortness of breath, and sudden dizziness (like you might pass out);
the first sign of any skin rash, no matter how mild;
muscle weakness, breathing problems;
little or no urination;
jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes); or
increased pressure inside the skull - severe headaches, ringing in your ears, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, pain behind your eyes.
Common ciprofloxacin side effects may include:
nausea, vomiting , diarrhea, stomach pain;
vaginal itching or discharge;
headache; or
abnormal liver function tests.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
See also:
Ciprofloxacin side effects (in more detail)
What other drugs will affect ciprofloxacin?
Some medicines can make ciprofloxacin much less effective when taken at the same time. If you take any of the following medicines, take your dose 2 hours before or 6 hours after you take the other medicine.
the ulcer medicine sucralfate, or antacids that contain calcium, magnesium, or aluminum (such as Maalox, Milk of Magnesia , Mylanta , Pepcid Complete ,
Rolaids , Tums, and others);
didanosine ( Videx ) powder or chewable tablets;
lanthanum carbonate or sevelamer ; or
vitamin or mineral supplements that contain calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc.
Tell your doctor about all your other medicines, especially:
cyclosporine , methotrexate, metoclopramide,
phenytoin , probenecid , ropinirole , sildenafil, or
theophylline ;
a blood thinner ( warfarin , Coumadin ,
Jantoven );
a diuretic or "water pill";
heart rhythm medication;
insulin or oral diabetes medicine (check your blood sugar regularly);
medicine to treat depression or mental illness;
steroid medicine (such as prednisone ); or
NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugsa>) - ibuprofen ( Advil , Motrin ), naproxen ( Aleve ), celecoxib , diclofenac , indomethacin ,
meloxicam , and others.
This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with ciprofloxacin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins , and
herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.

See also:

Ciprofloxacin drug interactions (in more detail)
Further information
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use ciprofloxacin only for the indication prescribed.
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
Copyright 1996-2020 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 22.01.
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