1) Advise clients concerning business transactions, claim liability, advisability of prosecuting or defending lawsuits, or legal rights and obligations.
1) Interpret laws, rulings and regulations for individuals and businesses.
2) Analyze the probable outcomes of cases, using knowledge of legal precedents.
3) Present and summarize cases to judges and juries.
4}Gather evidence to formulate defense or to initiate legal actions, by such means as interviewing clients and witnesses to ascertain the facts of a case.
1) The dignity of all persons shall be inviolable.
(2) No person shall, whether or not he is arrested, restricted or detained, be subjected to -
(a) torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
OEM Adobe CS3 Master Collection (a) any other condition that detracts or is likely to detractfrom his dignity and worth as a human being.
(3) A person who has not been convicted of a criminal offence shall not be treated as a convicted person and shall be kept separately from convicted persons.
(4) A juvenile offender who is kept in lawful custody or detention shall be kept separately from an adult offender.
16. (1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour
(3) For the purposes of this article, "forced labour" does not
(a) any labour required as a result of a sentence or
(b) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force or service a his duties or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to a service as a member of the Armed Forces of Ghana, ay labour which that person is required by law to perform in place of such service
(c) any labor required during any period when Ghana is at war or in the event of an emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requirement of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period for the purposes of dealing with the situation; or
(d) any labour reasonably required as part of normal communal or other civic obligations.
17. (1) All persons shall be equal before the law
2) A person shall not be discriminated against on grounds of gender, race, colour, ethnic origin, religion, creed or social or economic status.
(3) For the purposes of this article, "discriminate" means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, gender, occupation, religion or creed, whereby persons of one description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another description which are not granted of persons of another description are not made subject or are granted privileges or advantages which are not granted to persons of another description.
(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from enacting laws that are reasonably necessary to provide-
(a) for the implementation of policies and programmes aimed at redressing social, economic or educational imbalance in the Ghanaian society.;
(b) for matters relating to adoption, marriage divorce, burial devolution of property on death or other matters of personal law;
(c) for the imposition of restrictions on the acquisitions of land by persons who are not citizens of Ghana or on the political and economic activities of such persons and for other matters relating to such persons; or
(d) for making different provision for different communities having regard to their special circumstances not being provision which is inconsistent with the spirit of this Constitution.
(5) Nothing shall be taken to be inconsistent with this article which is allowed to be done under any provision of this Chapter
18. (1) Every person has the right to own property either alone or in association with others.
(2) No person shall be subjected to interference with the privacy of his home, property, correspondence or communication except in accordance with law and as may be necessary in a free and democratic society for public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the protection of the rights or freedoms of others
19. (1) A person charged with a criminal offence shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time by a court.
(2) A person charged with a criminal offence shall-
(a) in the case of an offence other than high treason or treason, the punishment for which is death or imprisonment for life, be tried by a judge and jury and -
(i) where the punishment is death, the verdict of the jury shall be by such majority as Parliament may by law prescribe.
(ii) in case of life imprisonment, the verdict of the jury shall be by such majority as Parliament may by law prescribe;
(b) in the case of an offence triable by a Regional Tribunal the penalty for which is death, the decision of the Chairman and the other panel members shall be unanimous;
(c) be presumed to be innocent until he is proved or has pleaded guilty;
(d) be informed immediately in a language he understands, and in detail; of the nature of the offence charged;
(e) be given adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;
(f) be permitted to defend himself before the court in person by a lawyer of his choice;
(g) be afforded facilities to examine, in person or by his lawyer, the witnesses called by the prosecution before the court, and to obtain the attendance and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify on the same conditions as those applicable to witnesses called by the prosecution.
(h) be permitted to have, without payment by him, the assistance of an interpreter where he cannot understand the language used at the trial; and
(i) in the case of the offence of high treason or treason, be tried by the High Court duly constituted by three Justices of that Court and the decision of the Justices shall be unanimous.
(3) The trial of a person charged with a criminal offence shall take place in his presence unless-
(a) he refuses to appear before the court for the trial to be conducted in his presence after he has been duly notified of the trial' or
(a) he conducts himself in such a manner as to render the continuation of the proceedings in his presence impracticable and the court order him to be removed for the trial to proceed in his absence.
(4) Whenever a person is tried for a criminal offence the accused person or a person authorized by him shall, if he so requires, be given, within a reasonable time not exceeding six months after judgment, a copy of any record of the accused person.
(5) A person shall not be charged with or held to be guilty of a criminal offence which is founded on an act or omission that did not at the time it took place constitute an offence.
(6) No penalty shall be imposed for a criminal offence that is severer in degree or description than the maximum penalty that could have been imposed for that offence at the time when it was committed.
(7) No person who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted, shall again be tried for that offence or for any other criminal offence of which he could have been convicted at the trial for the offence, except on the order of a superior court in court in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating to the conviction or acquittal.
(8) Notwithstanding clause (7) of this article, an acquittal of a person on a trial for high treason shall not be a bar to the institution of proceedings for any other offence against that person.
(9) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of clause (2) of this article shall not apply in the case of a trial by a court martial or other military tribunal.
(10) No person who is tried for a criminal offence shall be compelled to give evidence at the trial.
(11) No person shall be convicted of a criminal offence unless the defined and the penalty for it is prescribed in a written law.
(12) Clause (11) of this article shall not prevent a Superior court from punishing a person for contempt of itself notwithstanding that the act or omission constituting the contempt is not defined in a written law and the penalty is not so prescribed.
(13) An adjudicating authority for the determination of the existence or extent of a civil right or obligation shall, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, be established by law and shall be independent and impartial; and where proceedings for determination re instituted by a person before such as adjudicating authority, the case shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time.
(14) Except as may be otherwise ordered by the adjudicating authority in the interest of public morality, public safety, or public order the proceedings of any such adjudicating authority shall be in public.
(15) Nothing in this article shall prevent an adjudicating authority from excluding from the proceedings persons, other than the parties to the proceedings and their lawyers, such as extent as the authority-
(a) may consider necessary or expedient in circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interest of justice; or
(b) may be empowered by law to do in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, the welfare of persons under the age of eighteen or the protection of the private lives of persons concerned in the proceedings.
(16) Nothing in, or done under the authority of , any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of, the following provisions-
(a) paragraph (c) of clause (2) of this article, to the extent that the law in question imposes upon a person charged with a criminal offence, the burden of providing particular facts; or
(b) clause (7) of this article, to the extent that the law in question authorizes a court to try a member of disciplined force for a criminal offence notwithstanding any trial and conviction or acquittal of that member under the disciplinary law of the force, except that any court which tries that member and convicts him shall, in sentencing him to any punishment, take into account any punishment imposed on him under that disciplinary law.
17. Subject to clause (18) of this article, treason shall consist only-
(a) in levying war against Ghana or assisting any state or person or inciting or conspiring with any person to levy war against Ghana; or
(b) in attempting by force of arms or other violent means to overthrow the organs of government established by or under this Constitution; or
(c) in taking part or being concerned in or inciting or conspiring with any person to make or take part or be concerned in, any such attempt.
18. An act which aims at procuring by constitutional means an alteration of the law or of the policies of the Government shall not be considered as an act calculated to overthrow the organs of government.
1) The fundamental human rights and freedoms enshrined in this Chapter shall be respected and upheld by the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary and all other organs of government and its agencies and, were applicable t them, by all natural and legal persons in Ghana, and shall be enforceable by the Courts as provided for in this Constitution.
(2) Every person in Ghana, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinion, colour, religion, creed or gender shall be entitled to the fundamental human rights and freedoms of the individual contained in this Chapter but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest.
13. (1) No person shall be deprived of his life intentionally except in the exercise of the execution of a sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence under the laws of Ghana of which he has been convicted.
(2) A person shall not be held to have deprived another person of his life in contravention of clause (1) of this article if that other person dies as the result of a lawful act of war or if that other person dies as the result of the use of force to such an extent as is reasonably justifiable in the particular circumstances-
(a) for the defence of any person from violence or for the defence of property; or
(b) in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained; or
(c) for the purposes of suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny; or
(d) in order to prevent the commission of a crime by that person.
14. (1) Every person shall be entitled to his personal liberty and no person shall be deprived of his personal liberty except in the following cases and in accordance with procedure permitted by law-
(a) in execution of a sentence or order of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted; or
(b) in execution of an order of a court punishing him for contempt of court; or
(c ) for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of an order of a court; or
(d) in the case of a person suffering from an infectious or contagious disease, a person of unsound mind, a person addicted to drugs or alcohol or a vagrant, for the purpose of his care or treatment or the protection of the community; or
(e) for the purpose of the education or welfare of a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years; or
(f) for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into Ghana, or of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal of that person from Ghana or for the purpose of restricting that person while he is being lawfully conveyed through Ghana in the course of his extradition or removal from one country to another; or
(g) upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed or being about to commit a criminal offence under the laws of Ghana.
(2) A person who is arrested, restricted or detained shall be informed immediately; in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest, restriction or detention and of his right to a lawyer of his choice.
(3) A person who is arrested, restricted or detained-
(a) for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of an order of a court; or
(b) upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed or being about to commit a criminal offence under the laws of Ghana, and who is not released.
Shall be brought before a court within forty-eight hours after the arrest, restriction or detention.
(4) Where a person arrested, restricted or detained under paragraph (a) or (b) of clause (3) of this article is not tried within a reasonable time, then without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him, he shall be released, either unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including in particular, conditions reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial.
(5) A person who is unlawfully arrested, restricted or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation from that order person.
(6) Where a person is convicted and sentenced to a term of imprisonment for an offence, any period he has spent in lawful custody in respect of that offence before the completion of his trial shall be taken into account in imposing the term of imprisonment.
(7) Where a person who has served the whole or a part of his sentence is acquitted on appeal by a court, other than the Supreme Court, the court may certify to the Supreme Court that the person acquitted be paid compensation: and the Supreme Court may, upon examination of all the facts and the certificate of the court concerned, award such compensation as it may think fit; or, where the acquitted is by the Supreme Court, it may order compensation to be aid to the person acquitted.
[01/10/14] Advice for people looking for Attorneys to help them,research an attorney to see whether he or she has ever been subject to discipline. Although disciplinary actions do not necessarily impact the attorney's competence to handle your case, they may affect your decision whether to hire.
[01/10/14] I strongly recommend the Judicial Service to look into the matter of our Ghana Law schools,There should be practical lessons that will enlighten law student in their field,UK does that and needs to be visited too,this is my opinion
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[01/10/14] The issue of crime needs a lot of mechanism by the Ghana Police service in unveiling the truth.We commend them for their good work but more needs to be done
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